Let’s take a walk throughthe millenniums by the centuries’ lane; stroll into the different decades and remember our history.

The stories made and told by men. Passed over through oral traditions of the primitive; documentations via internet to archiving in books.

a story of discoveries, wars, tortures and revolutions. A story about conquests, slavery as well as division. A story written by the victorious and read to the defeated.

From generations to generations.

The story of evolution. The story of history…


In the early ages; with the backwardness of civilisations where man lived in harmony with nature and her elements. Where fishing was done with sticks, hunting with stones and men spoke in tongues with no industrialisation in sight.

Evolution can be seen and studied under so many branches in science where many great personalities have devoted their lives to the human race but today I’ll like us to focus on archaeology

  • Archaeology (noun):is the scientific study of historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, and other such remains, especially those that have been excavated.OR simply the study of antiquity-rare and ancient history.
  • The archaeologists developed a simple system by which man and his evolution could be classified in a chronological manner called the three-age system.
     The three-age system in archaeology and physical anthropology is the periodization of human prehistory and history into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective tool-making technologies:- The Stone Age, The Bronze Age and The Iron Age.

Summarised in the table below by their periods in history (Classified here  by their occurrence in continents and regions).




Stone Age
(2,000,000 BP – 3300 BCE)

(2,000,000 BP – 8300 BCE)
Lower Paleolithic 2,000,000 BP300,000 BP
Middle Paleolithic 300,000 BP30,000 BP
Upper Paleolithic 30,000 BP12,000 BP
Epipaleolithic 12,000 BP – 8300 BCE
(8300 BCE – 4500 BCE)
Pre-pottery Neolithic 8300 BCE – 5500 BCE
Pottery Neolithic 5500 BCE – 4500 BCE
(4500 BCE – 3300 BCE)
Early Chalcolithic 4500 BCE – 4000 BCE
Late Chalcolithic (Ghassulian) 4000 BCE – 3300 BCE



Bronze Age
(3300 BCE – 1200 BCE)

Early Bronze Age
(3300 BCE – 2000 BCE)
Early Bronze Age I 3300 BCE – 3000 BCE
Early Bronze Age II 3000 BCE – 2700 BCE
Early Bronze Age III 2700 BCE – 2200 BCE
Early Bronze Age IV 2200 BCE – 2000 BCE
Middle Bronze Age
(2000 BCE – 1550 BCE)
Middle Bronze Age I 2000 BCE – 1750 BCE
Middle Bronze Age II 1750 BCE – 1650 BCE
Middle Bronze Age III 1650 BCE – 1550 BCE
Late Bronze Age
(1550 BCE – 1200 BCE)
Late Bronze Age I 1550 BCE – 1400 BCE
Late Bronze Age II A 1400 BCE – 1300 BCE
Late Bronze Age II B 1300 BCE – 1200 BCE

Iron Age
(1200 BCE – 586 BCE)

Iron Age I
(1200 BCE – 1000 BCE)
Iron Age I A 1200 BCE – 1150 BCE
Iron Age I B 1150 BCE – 1000 BCE
Iron Age II
(1000 BCE – 586 BCE)
Iron Age II A 1000 BCE – 900 BCE
Iron Age II B 900 BCE – 700 BCE
Iron Age II C 700 BCE – 56 BCE




Historical periods
(586 BCE -present)

Babylonian and Persian periods 586 BCE – 332 BCE
Hellenistic period
(332 BCE – 37 BCE)
Early Hellenistic 332 BCE – 167 BCE
Late Hellenistic 167 BCE – 37 BCE
Roman period
(37 BCE – 324 CE)
Early Roman 37 BCE – 132 CE
Late Roman 132 CE – 324 CE
Byzantine period 324 – 638
Early Arab period (Umayyad and Abbasid) 638 – 1099
Crusader and Ayyubid periods 1099 – 1291
Late Arab period (Fatimid and Mamluk) 1291 – 1516
Ottoman period 1516 – 1917
Modern period 1917 – current

The term “Paleolithic” was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek: παλαιός, palaios, “old”; and λίθος, lithos, “stone”, meaning “old age of the stone” or “Old Stone Age.”

The Paleolithic Age, also known as the Stone Age, encompasses the first widespread use of technology-from simpler to more complex developmental stages with the spread of humanity from the savannas of East Africa to the rest of the world. It is generally said to have begun approximately 500,000 years ago and to have ended about 6,000 B.C.E. with the development of agriculture, the domestication of certain animals, and the smelting of copper ore to produce metal. It is termed pre-historical since humanity had not yet started writing, which is seen as the traditional start of (recorded) history.


This was a period of the extensive use of chipped-stone tools to meet people’s three basic needs of food, shelter, and clothing. To hunt for food, early humans formed spears, first by sharpening the ends of sticks, and later by attaching a sharp stone spear-tip to wood using animal sinew (a piece of tough fibrous tissue uniting muscle to bone; a tendon or ligament), hence a composite tool (a tool made up of more than one material). With the formation of clans to better survive during this period of harsh lifestyle.

Knowledge of human life at this time is confined to generalities. This is because scientists do not have records of individual lives or of the achievements of individual contributors to human development. Though technology enabled humans to settle in larger numbers, there came a need for more rules to regulate life, which gave rise to ethical codes.Religious believes that are reflected in cave art, also became more sophisticated with the evolution of death and burial rites. As hunting and gathering gave way to agriculture, some people became artisans, trading implements they produced and even larger settlements, such as Jericho, appeared. Art (such as the cave paintings at Lascaux) and music also developed as some people had more time for leisure.The human society emerged as more self-consciously collective as people became aware that they faced the same challenges and that co-operation was better than competition.

The Neolithic Period, also called New Stone Age, is the final stage of cultural evolution or technological development among prehistoric humans. It was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, dependence on domesticated plants or animals, settlement in permanent villages and the appearance of such crafts as pottery and weaving. The Neolithic followed the Paleolithic Period (or age of chipped-stone tools) and preceded the Bronze Age (or early period of metal tools).


The Bronze Age was a period of time between the Stone Age and the Iron Age when bronze was used widely to make tools, weapons, and other implements. Bronze is made when copper is heated and mixed with tin, creating a stronger metal than copper.


The Bronze Age was third phase in the development of material culture among the ancient peoples of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, following the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods (Old Stone Age and New Stone Age, respectively).
The term also denotes the first period in which metal was used. The date at which the age began varied with regions; in Greece and China, it began before 3000 B.C.E, whereas in Britain it did not start until about 1900 B.C.E. The beginning of the Bronze age is sometimes called the Chalcolithic (Copper-Stone) Age-referring to the initial use of pure copper along with its predecessor tool-making material, stone.

The Iron Age is the final technological and cultural stage in the StoneBronze–Iron-Age sequence. The date of the full Iron Age, in which this metal for the most part replaced bronze in implements and weapons, varied geographically, beginning in the Middle East and southeastern Europe about 1200 B.C.E but in China not until about 600 B.C.E.


The Iron Age began with the widespread use of iron and steel. These materials changed societies by advancing agriculture, weaponry and even artistic expression. This also coincided with the spread of written language. In historical archaeology, the earliest preserved manuscripts are from the Iron Age. This is due to the introduction of alphabetic characters,which allowed literature to flourish and for societies to record historic texts.





The differences from the preceding age of bronze were due to more advanced ways of processing iron. Because iron is softer than bronze, it could be forged, making design move from rectilinear patterns and Iron smelting is much more difficult than tin and copper smelting. These metals and their alloys can be cold-worked, but smelted iron requires hot-working and can be melted only in specially designed furnaces.
Iron fragments found in presently show the use of carbon steel. These iron fragments are the earliest known evidence of steel manufacturing.
During the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly carbon alloys. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, but much stronger.


The Modern Age

This picture represents the acceptance of modernisation and all its drawbacks in the detriment of our cultures and identities. The idustrial revolution, creation of computers, social media, etc…


That’s a wrap. I hope you liked our trip down memory lane, revisiting ancient history and learning something new today.

Fell free to like and comment. Thank you for taking your time to read this till the end, that’s a real accomplishment. 😀


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